In April 2017, in a groundbreaking clinical trial, physicians transplanted kidneys infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) into 10 patients on the transplant waitlist, then successfully destroyed the disease in all the recipients. But that pilot study was just the first step for this innovative approach.
With more and more population-based data available from wearable devices, scientists are increasingly questioning how physical activity influences our health and the role it plays in psychiatric health, in particular. A recent study, one of the first to examine multiple biological systems in mood disorders via real-time tracking data, could refine and expand our understanding of that link
Kathleen Ries Merikangas, PhD; Joel Swendsen, PhD; Ian B. Hickie, MBBS; Lihong Cui, MSc; Haochang Shou, PhD; Alison K. Merikangas, MPH, PhD; Jihui Zhang, MD, PhD; Femke Lamers, PhD; Ciprian Crainiceanu, PhD; Nora D. Volkow, MD; Vadim Zipunnikov, PhD
The term “social determinants of health” has become a part of our lexicon in healthcare; factors such as trauma, food insecurity and housing instability are widely known to influence high rates of chronic disease among disadvantaged people. But how can we best help patients deal with those factors, and how much we can improve their health by doing so?
In 2015, the kickoff accounted for six percent of all football plays in the Ivy League athletic conference, but was to blame for 21 percent of the concussions. The next year, the League made an experimental rule change — moving the kickoff line from the 35- to the 40-yard line and the touchback line from the 25- to the 20-yard line. A research team has produced rigorous evidence that the change worked: concussions from kickoffs decreased by 68 percent.
A sprained ankle is a common, minor injury; yet a study shows that one quarter of adult patients who went to hospital emergency departments seeking treatment for it were prescribed opioids—and this was dramatically more likely in some states.
Kidney stones mysteriously have become much more common in the U.S. over the past few decades, particularly among adolescents and young women. A recent study has uncovered strong evidence that certain common oral antibiotics may be a culprit.
People with severe head injuries fare better when treated by trauma centers, even if that means bypassing other hospitals, this research team showed—which presents a major opportunity to improve outcomes for almost half of these patients.
Elinore J. Kaufman, MD, MSHP; Ashkan Ertefaie, PhD; Dylan S. Small, PhD; Daniel N. Holena, MD, MS, FACS; M. Kit Delgado, MD, MS
The inflammation we see in psoriasis is similar to what we see in atherosclerosis—a type of heart disease that involves the build-up of fats, cholesterol and inflammatory cells in the artery walls. Could a drug used to treat psoriasis patients also help people with aortic vascular inflammation? A team led by Joel M. Gelfand, MD, MSCE, tested that idea.
When patients who've never used opioids before are prescribed large numbers of tablets for acute pain, they're more prone to becoming long-term users and more likely to have leftover tablets that could be diverted for misuse and abuse. Setting low opioid prescription default quantities in electronic medical record orders can help, showed a study led by M. Kit Delgado, MD, MS (pictured).
Psoriasis is less common among members of racial minorities—but when it does occur, it can be more burdensome. This study team showed that minorities are less likely than white Americans to see a doctor for psoriasis treatment—and brought to public attention a disparity that should be addressed.
Patients with psoriasis and with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are often treated with similar drugs, but those with psoriatic skin or joint disease—particularly patients with more severe skin psoriasis—are higher risk for serious liver disease, reports a team led by Alexis Ogdie-Beatty, MD, MSCE.
Studies that have examined ride-hailing's impact on motor vehicle crashes by using data averaged across cities have provided some clues about public safety. However the way drivers use a city’s roadway networks and the spatial structure of the cities themselves can vary widely. This team looked at the specific effects of ride-hailing within four particular cities.
Adherence to HIV treatment regimens strongly predicts treatment outcomes; but part of the recommended first-line HIV treatment regimen for children under the age of three is difficult for many of them to take. And while some children strongly reject the drug, others readily accept its taste. Seeking clues about individual differences in the palatability of pediatric drug formulations, the authors used a panel of adults whose taste-receptor genotypes had previously been defined.
We know that psoriasis, which affects about 7.5 million Americans, is associated with an increased risk for conditions such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; but what about patients' future risk for major health problems? This study is the first to link psoriasis to an increased risk of death using an objective measure of disease severity, Body Surface Area, rather than by looking at treatment patterns.
How can we answer and anticipate the pressing health issues we face together as a society? At the CCEB we rise to that challenge through research and training in epidemiology and in biostatistics. We solve problems facing patients and populations. MORE