Cases of recurrent of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), the most common healthcare-linked infection in the U.S., are now cropping up at much higher rates, a Penn study team discovered. The findings underscore the demand for effective new treatment options and the crucial need to make sure they are safe for patients.
Kiran Shelat (shown with wife and daughter) used to be one of the more than 97,000 patients in the U.S. who are waiting for kidney transplants—often for five years or more. Then he became part of a groundbreaking clinical trial that asks: Can we substantially increase the supply of transplant kidneys by using some of the many donated but previously discarded organs infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), then destroying the disease in the recipient?
Depression is common during the transition to menopause, but which women are most at risk for major depressive disorder (MDD)? This team was the first to examine how early adversity influences the onset of MDD during the menopause transition, and how the timing of a traumatic event might affect that onset.
C. Neill Epperson, MD; Mary D. Sammel, ScD; Tracy L. Bale, PhD; Deborah R. Kim, MD; Sarah Conlin, BA; Stephanie Scalice, MA; Katharine Freeman, BA; and Ellen W. Freeman, PhD
People over the age of 65 are least likely to be physically active. Can incentive programs help, and which kinds would be most effective? The authors engaged in one of the first few studies aimed at finding out.
Labor is induced in about one million women each year who deliver babies in the U.S. The authors investigated four different methods of inducing labor to see which would reduce the amount of time it takes until delivery.
Lisa D. Levine, MD, MSCE; Katheryne L. Downes, PhD, MPH; Michal A. Elovitz, MD; Samuel Parry, MD; Mary D. Sammel, ScD; Sindhu K. Srinivas, MD, MSCE
After the “stand your ground” law was implemented, Florida firearm homicides jumped about 30%. Douglas Wiebe, senior author of this widely reported study, comments, “We know of no other event abrupt or gradual that happened around the same time that could help explain why we see such an abrupt and sustained increase.”
Despite substantial criticism, polygraphy remains the only biological method of lie detection in practical use today. The authors sought to find out which would more accurately detect concealed information—polygraphy or functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Daniel D. Langleben, MD; Jonathan G. Hakun, PhD; David Seelig, VMD; An-Li Wang, PhDa; Kosha Ruparel, MS; Warren B. Bilker, PhD; and Ruben C. Gur, PhD
Depression is highly prevalent among young adults of child-rearing age. The authors investigated whether it would be feasible and acceptable to screen for parental depression in urban pediatric practices—and they identified valuable information for practitioners and policymakers.
James P. Guevara, MD, MPH, Marsha Gerdes, PhD, Brooke Rothman, MSSP, Victor Igbokidi, MD, Susan Doughterty, PhD, Russell Localio, PhD, and Rhonda C. Boyd, PhD
Financial incentives to help people quit smoking are at least as successful as pharmacotherapies, and incentives are being widely adopted in workplace wellness programs. However we need more information about which types of smokers respond best to which types of incentive programs.
Scott D. Halpern, Benjamin French,Dylan S. Small, Kathryn Saulsgiver, Michael O. Harhay, Janet Audrain-McGovern, George Loewenstein, David A. Asch and Kevin G. Volpp
Calm minds, active bodies: Via a new strategy that helps physicians monitor their young concussion patients in real time, a team from the Perelman School of Medicine and The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia found new insights that may change recommendations for longer-term treatment.
Most children who are eligible for early-intervention programs don't participate. The authors devised a novel program to help patients navigate the necessary steps. Would it be feasible—and could it increase these referrals among a diverse group of at-risk children?
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells with anti-CD19 specificity offer a highly effective, novel immune therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). But we need better information about which patients will develop Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS)--most common severe toxicity that follows such treatment.
David T. Teachey, Simon F. Lacey, Pamela A. Shaw, J. Joseph Melenhorst, Shannon L. Maude, Noelle Frey, Edward Pequignot, Vanessa E. Gonzalez, Fang Chen, Jeffrey Finklestein, David M. Barrett, Scott L. Weiss, Julie C. Fitzgerald, Robert A. Berg, Richard Aplenc, Colleen Callahan, Susan R. Rheingold, Zhaohui Zheng, Stefan Rose-John, Jason C. White, Farzana Nazimuddin, Gerald Wertheim, Bruce L. Levine, Carl H. June, David L. Porter and Stephan A. Grupp
Neuropsychiatric disorders increasingly are conceptualized as disorders of brain development. The authors' new approach can help us to chart normal cortical development and new biomarkers of psychopathology, as well as to understand differences between adolescent males and females.
Simon N. Vandekar, Russell T. Shinohara, Armin Raznahan, Ryan D. Hopson, David R. Roalf,
Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur, Theodore D. Satterthwaite
TB is the No. 1 killer of HIV+ patients in resource-limited countries, and those with advanced HIV are at especially high risk. But does proactive treatment with an empiric, multi-drug TB regimen help them any better than does screening and simple isoniazid treatment?
Mina C Hosseinipour, MD; Gregory P Bisson, MD; Sachiko Miyahara, PhD; Xin Sun, MS; Agnes Moses, MMED; Cynthia Riviere, MD; Fredrick K Kirui, MMED; Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, MBBCh; David Lagat, MBChB; Mulinda Nyirenda, MMED; Kogieleum Naidoo, MBChB; James Hakim, FRCP; Peter Mugyenyi, MBChB; German Henostroza, MD; Paul D Leger, MD; Javier R Lama, MD; Lerato Mohapi, MBBCh; Jorge Alave, MD; Vidya Mave, MD; Valdilea G Veloso, MD; Sandy Pillay, MBChB; Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, PhD; Jing Bao, MD; Evelyn Hogg, BA; Lynne Jones, MT ASCP; Andrew Zolopa, MD; Johnstone Kumwenda, MBChB; Amita Gupta, MD, for the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5274 (REMEMBER) Study Team
How can we answer and anticipate the pressing health issues we face together as a society? At the CCEB we rise to that challenge through research and training in epidemiology and in biostatistics. We solve problems facing patients and populations. MORE