Studies that have examined ride-hailing's impact on motor vehicle crashes by using data averaged across cities have provided some clues about public safety. However the way drivers use a city’s roadway networks and the spatial structure of the cities themselves can vary widely. This team looked at the specific effects of ride-hailing within four particular cities.
Adherence to HIV treatment regimens strongly predicts treatment outcomes; but part of the recommended first-line HIV treatment regimen for children under the age of three is difficult for many of them to take. And while some children strongly reject the drug, others readily accept its taste. Seeking clues about individual differences in the palatability of pediatric drug formulations, the authors used a panel of adults whose taste-receptor genotypes had previously been defined.
We know that psoriasis, which affects about 7.5 million Americans, is associated with an increased risk for conditions such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; but what about patients' future risk for major health problems? This study is the first to link psoriasis to an increased risk of death using an objective measure of disease severity, Body Surface Area, rather than by looking at treatment patterns.
Cases of recurrent of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), the most common healthcare-linked infection in the U.S., are now cropping up at much higher rates, a Penn study team discovered. The findings underscore the demand for effective new treatment options and the crucial need to make sure they are safe for patients.
Why do some teens living with HIV adhere well to their medication regimens, and others do not? The authors conducted focus group discussions and interviewed adolescents at both ends of that spectrum in Botswana, seeking to determine which factors most commonly pose barriers and which most often facilitate good adherence.
Kiran Shelat (shown with wife and daughter) used to be one of the more than 97,000 patients in the U.S. who are waiting for kidney transplants—often for five years or more. Then he became part of a groundbreaking clinical trial that asks: Can we substantially increase the supply of transplant kidneys by using some of the many donated but previously discarded organs infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), then destroying the disease in the recipient?
Depression is common during the transition to menopause, but which women are most at risk for major depressive disorder (MDD)? This team was the first to examine how early adversity influences the onset of MDD during the menopause transition, and how the timing of a traumatic event might affect that onset.
C. Neill Epperson, MD; Mary D. Sammel, ScD; Tracy L. Bale, PhD; Deborah R. Kim, MD; Sarah Conlin, BA; Stephanie Scalice, MA; Katharine Freeman, BA; and Ellen W. Freeman, PhD
People over the age of 65 are least likely to be physically active. Can incentive programs help, and which kinds would be most effective? The authors engaged in one of the first few studies aimed at finding out.
Labor is induced in about one million women each year who deliver babies in the U.S. The authors investigated four different methods of inducing labor to see which would reduce the amount of time it takes until delivery.
Lisa D. Levine, MD, MSCE; Katheryne L. Downes, PhD, MPH; Michal A. Elovitz, MD; Samuel Parry, MD; Mary D. Sammel, ScD; Sindhu K. Srinivas, MD, MSCE
After the “stand your ground” law was implemented, Florida firearm homicides jumped about 30%. Douglas Wiebe, senior author of this widely reported study, comments, “We know of no other event abrupt or gradual that happened around the same time that could help explain why we see such an abrupt and sustained increase.”
Despite substantial criticism, polygraphy remains the only biological method of lie detection in practical use today. The authors sought to find out which would more accurately detect concealed information—polygraphy or functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Daniel D. Langleben, MD; Jonathan G. Hakun, PhD; David Seelig, VMD; An-Li Wang, PhDa; Kosha Ruparel, MS; Warren B. Bilker, PhD; and Ruben C. Gur, PhD
Depression is highly prevalent among young adults of child-rearing age. The authors investigated whether it would be feasible and acceptable to screen for parental depression in urban pediatric practices—and they identified valuable information for practitioners and policymakers.
James P. Guevara, MD, MPH, Marsha Gerdes, PhD, Brooke Rothman, MSSP, Victor Igbokidi, MD, Susan Doughterty, PhD, Russell Localio, PhD, and Rhonda C. Boyd, PhD
Financial incentives to help people quit smoking are at least as successful as pharmacotherapies, and incentives are being widely adopted in workplace wellness programs. However we need more information about which types of smokers respond best to which types of incentive programs.
Scott D. Halpern, Benjamin French,Dylan S. Small, Kathryn Saulsgiver, Michael O. Harhay, Janet Audrain-McGovern, George Loewenstein, David A. Asch and Kevin G. Volpp
Calm minds, active bodies: Via a new strategy that helps physicians monitor their young concussion patients in real time, a team from the Perelman School of Medicine and The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia found new insights that may change recommendations for longer-term treatment.
How can we answer and anticipate the pressing health issues we face together as a society? At the CCEB we rise to that challenge through research and training in epidemiology and in biostatistics. We solve problems facing patients and populations. MORE